09 June, 2018

The following post is the notes I took for Laracasts "The PHP Practitioner" video course.

Language updates

(2004) PHP 5.0 object-oriented model ➡️
(2009) PHP 5.3 anonymous functions and namespaces in ➡️
(2012) PHP 5.4 traits


Use Double quotes for string interpolation. single quotes won't work.
👍 “hello $name" 👎 ‘hello $name'

alternatively you can concatenate. echo ‘Hello '.$name you could also add brackets around the variable “hello {$name}”


if the file contains just php, you can omit the php closing tag.

<?= is a shortcut for <?php echo otherwise end your code with ?>


you can sanitize your input using the function: htmlspecialchars so it’ll treat users entering html as plain strings. Instead of: this is bold you'll see this is bold</b

Separation of concerns (separating responsibility)

Use the keyword 'require' to pull in everything from a file require = index.view.php


function dd($tasks) {
    foreach($tasks as $task) {

class Task {
    protected $description;
    protected $completed = false;

    public function __construct($description) {
        $this->description = $description;

    public function complete() {
        $this->completed = true;

    public function isComplete()
        return $this->completed;
$tasks = [
    new Task('go to the store'),
    new Task('buy milk'),
    new Task('go to the library'),



PDO() stands for php data object. It offers an interface to connect to your database.

Handle exceptions

try/catch {}

Helpful hint

In some deprectated tutorials you might see something like mysql_connect(); avoid it.

Static methods

It's a way to make a methods globally accessible without requiring an instance. A static functions are not instance methods.

class Connection {
    public static function make() {


// Instead of having to do this...
// $connection = new Connection();
// $connection->make();

//You can do this instead

###There's this concept of super global arrays


Quick sidetrack, this is a good programming workflow to adopt.

  1. write code 2. see it fail 3. make it work

Run PHP with its built-in server

  1. php -S localhost:8080
  2. php file.php

array_map, array_filter

while array filter takes an array and a closure function as parameters (in that order), for some reason its the other way round for array_map() function. These language inconsistencies are encapsulated with wrappers around those functions with collection classes.

When would you use array_map()?

When you need to modify something before returning it.

When to use array_map, array_filter and array_column?

  • array_filter() allows you to filter down a collection and then return a boolean to indicate if that item gets included in the result set.

  • array_map() transforms an object in some way, maybe return a subset or converts it or wrap it in some other object.

-array_column() pulls a value from each item in the collection.

To be continued...